Great Wall Passes
|Jiayuguan Pass Gate and Gate Tower|
City wall: It is the main component of the Great Wall pass, often measures about 33 feet tall. The outside of the wall was laid by pieces of large bricks or stones with the inner comprising of yellow earth and debris. The top of the wall measures about 4.4 to 5.5 yards which enables four horses to run side by side. On the wall, there are forts from where soldiers can overlook and shoot with low parapets (Nuqiang in Chinese) to protect people and horses in case they fell over the wall.
City Gate: In peace time, it is the passageway for soldiers passing in and out. At war, it is used for the exit to counter attack enemies. Many gates are carved the name of the pass. Inside the opening, a pair of wooden doors stand there which are covered by sheet iron on the outside. The inner sides of the doors are secured by big bolts and lock holes. Even machineries are hidden inside to kill the intruders.
|Model of Great Wall Pass|
Wengcheng: A small enclosure which is built on the outer side of the Great Wall. It serves as another line of the city wall to strengthen the defensibility of the city gate.
Luocheng: It is a secondary wall built to protect the Wengcheng which is often the main target of enemies. On the top, there are also towers to watch the enemy's situation and command battlement.
Moat: There is usually a moat around the Great Wall pass. It is a deep trench filled with water after excavation to build the pass. Being another line of defense, it increases the difficulty for enemies to attack the city and creates opportunities for soldiers on the wall to attack intruders.