Political System of Tang Dynasty
Imperial Examination System
|Stone Statues of 61 Foreign Officials, |
Qianling Mausoleum, Tang Dynasty
There were usually four subjects existing in different times, including 'Jinshi', 'Mingjing', 'Mingfa' and 'Mingyu'. The examination of the highest-grade was called 'Sheng Shi' (the national exam) which was held annually by the Shangshu Sheng in the capital city Chang'an (currently Xi'an). Those who were selected to attend Sheng Shi were called 'Ju Ren'. Examinees that passed the 'Sheng Shi' were called 'Ji Di'. Especially, the one who got the first place in the exam was entitled as 'Zhuang Yuan'. All the 'Ji Di's were qualified enough to be further judged by Li Bu who decided if they could be given an official title.
Generally, the Imperial Examination System was a progressive examination which allowed intellectuals born in poor families to have the opportunity to become an officer in the court. Speaking from the imperial part, this examination system helped to enhance the centralization of imperial power and to promote the unification of thought.
The second level was the three departments: Chancellery, Department of State Affairs, and Central Secretariat.
They control six ministries which dealt with the whole state’s affairs of Personnel, Revenue, Rites, Defense, Justice, and Works.
The newly emerged equal-field system standardized the distribution of farmland. Peasants can get enough soil to grow crops. The government also valued agriculture most by implementing many irrigation projects. The handcraft industry also developed rapidly, which also promoted the economy of the state, making Tang in the leading position of the world. Literature also reached a prosperity at that time, especially poetry. Many famous lines were created during that period.