Home / Chinese Culture / History /
|Wax statue of Lord Bao, |
an upright official in the
Northern Song Dynasty
The Northern Song was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, a military general in the Latter Zhou (951 - 960). In 960, Zhao Kuangyin launched a mutiny in Chenqiao county (in current Henan Province).It was not long before the last king of the Latter Zhou was forced to abdicate. Thus a new dynasty - Song was established in Kaifeng. In that period, most part of China's territory was unified. However, in late Northern Song, the political corruption was serious and the regime began to decline. In 1127, it was destroyed by the Jin (1115 - 1234).
The Southern Song was set up by Zhao Gou, son of the last emperor of Northern Song. After Jin defeated the Northern Song, many imperial clansmen were captured by Jin's army. Fortunately, Zhao Gou had a luck escape. In 1127, he fled to Nanjing Yingtianfu (in current Shangqiu of Henan Province) and established the Southern Song Dynasty there. Later, the capital city was moved to Lin'an (currently Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province).The Southern Song's regime was subject to the Jin. Many patriotic generals were killed in the late period. In 1279, the army of the Yuan Dynasty captured Lin'an, putting the Southern Song to an end.
Generally, the Song Dynasty was prosperous in many respects of the society. In agriculture, the productive technology was improved which promoted the output of food; in handicraft industry, the division of labor became more detailed which made the handicrafts technology reach an advanced level; additionally, the development of the commodity economy exceeded the previous level. Particularly, the earliest paper currency appeared at that period.
As for the development of science and culture, tremendous achievements were made during this period. Two of China's four great inventions - typography and compass were both invented and the application of gunpowder also developed rapidly. With regard to literature, a large number of outstanding scholars and poets, such as Zhuxi, Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Sima Guang and Shen Kuo, emerged and built up the splendid cultural atmosphere of the Song Dynasty.
|Reign Time (years)|
Northern Song (960 - 1127)
|1||Song Taizu |
|Formerly the leading general of the Latter Zhou (951 - 960); He usurped the throne and founded the Song Dynasty by launching a coup.||960 - 976|
|2||Song Taizong |
|The younger brother of Zhao Kuangyin; during his reign, the whole China was unified by his defeating the Northern Han (951 - 979).||976 - 997|
|3||Song Zhenzong |
|Son of Emperor Taizong; In his reign, the military power of Song was strengthened but he signed the first humiliating treaty with the Liao (916 - 1125). Especially, he founded the famous ceramic kiln in Jingdezhen.||997 - 1022|
|4||Song Renzong |
|Son of Emperor Zhenzong; His reign was the turning point of the Song Dynasty from the prosperity to the disintegration.||1022 - 1063|
|5||Song Yingzong |
|Son of one of the imperial clansmen and was adopted by Emperor Renzong; Actually, Emperor Yingzong's father was the first cousin of Emperor Renzong.||1063 - 1067|
|6||Song Shenzong |
|During his reign, he appointed Wang Anshi as Chancellor who presented a series of reform policy. He tried to expel Xixia (a contemporary kingdom of the Northern Song) troops out of the Song's territory but it was in vain.||1067 - 1085|
|7||Song Zhezong |
|Son of Emperor Zhenzong; In his reign, a conventional chancellor named Sima Guang was appointed, who once halted the reform policy put forth by Wang Anshi.||1085 - 1100|
|8||Song Huizong |
|The 11th son of Emperor Shenzong; one of the few monarchs who favored Taoism and against Buddhism; As an emperor, he was more well-known as a painter, poet, calligrapher and musician.||1100 - 1125|
|9||Song Qinzong |
|The eldest son of Emperor Huizong; He ascended to the throne after his father abdicated. However, the Song court was defeated by the Jin army in 1127 after which both Qinzong and Huizong were demoted to commoner.||1126 - 1127|
Southern Song (1127 - 1279)
|10||Song Gaozong |
|The ninth son of Emperor Huizong who escaped the capture of the Jin court; He founded the weak Northern Song in Lin'an (currently Hangzhou).||1127 - 1162|
|11||Song Xiaozong |
|He belonged to the seventh generation descendants of Emperor Taizu.||1162 - 1189|
|12||Song Guangzong |
|The present Chongqing City was originally named by Guangzong, meaning ‘double celebration'.||1189 - 1194|
|13||Song Ningzong |
|In his reign, the cultural and intellectual achievements were abundant.||1194 - 1224|
|14||Song Lizong |
|He was not interested in state affairs. In his reign, the Jin (1115 - 1234) was destroyed in 1234.||1224 - 1264|
|15||Song Duzong |
|Nephew of Emperor Lizong; His reign was full of rebellions and war affairs.||1264 - 1274|
|16||Song Gongdi |
|Son of Emperor Duzong; His reign lasted for only two years then he abdicated to his elder brother.||1275 - 1276|
|17||Song Duanzong |
|Son of Emperor Duzong; His reign also lasted for two years till his death.||1276 - 1278|
|18||Song Weiwang |
|Younger brother of Duanzong and died at eight; Chancellor Lu Xiu carried him jumping into the sea after the Yuan army's invasion.||1278 - 1279|
- Last updated on Apr. 23, 2023 -
Questions & Answers on Song Dynasty
Asked by Lilisnne from CHINA | Apr. 21, 2023 09:25Reply
how was the song dynasty government?
Answered by Andy | Apr. 23, 2023 18:40
This is really a big question. The Song Dynasty lasted for 319 years and had 18 emperors governed. Some of the emperors were good rulers, while some were not. As a whole, the ruling was steady and the governmen was rich.
Asked by Laura Luu from CANADA | Apr. 21, 2019 18:52Reply
what was the economy(agriculture and industry) like in the song dynasty?
Answered by Hailey from USA | Apr. 22, 2019 21:05
The economy in Song Dynasty is very prosperous and it developed greatly in agriculture, handicraft industry and business. There were more advanced agriculture tools and the textile industry was also very booming.
Answered by alex from RIVERTION | Dec. 17, 2019 08:43
i think that you could do better to the sentence and what do you think that most people are not nice to you and want is the best and then if you are not the. and i feel that you are not the only think and want is the only life that you could have and, i feel that i'm the only one that you could have but want is the only think that you could that see want you could see and do.
Asked by Carrie from USA | Apr. 14, 2019 15:51Reply
How did the rulers of the Song Dynasty expand or unify China?
Answered by Kevin from CANADA | Apr. 15, 2019 01:25
In fact, the emperors of the Song Dynasty never unified the whole China because of the poor military power.
Answered by Carrie from USA | Apr. 21, 2019 13:53
Thank you Kevin, you are right.