- Day Trip to Terracotta Warriors
- 2 Days Ancient Xian
- 3 Days Historical Xian
- 4 Days Xian & Mt. Hua
- 1 Week Beijing Xian
- 1 Day to Luoyang
- Xian & Luoyang
- Terracotta Warriors
- City Wall
- Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
- Small Wild Goose Pagoda
- Shaanxi History Museum
- Great Mosque
Ancient City Wall Clockwise Hiking from South Gate
Standing amidst a myriad of modern buildings, China's most integrated and best-preserved Ming dynasty City Wall has long been a widely admired landmark for visitors to Xian. It has been a must-see destination in Xi’an for the travelers and a popular hiking place among the locals.
Here we first present you with a hot hiking route along the wall. And in the detailed information, you will learn about the warfare, city construction and the architectural arts in ancient times about the City Wall. And it'll be fun, too!
Start from the South Gate (Yongning Gate), located at the midpoint of the City Wall in the south, you will then walk clockwise around the wall and in turn pass by:
The south part (start) of the City Wall, including Zhuque Gate, Wumu Gate, and Hanguang Gate;
The west part, including West Gate (Anding Gate) and Yuxiang Gate;
The north part, including Shangwu Gate (Small North Gate), the North Gate (Anyuan Gate), Shangde Gate, Jiefang Gate, Shangjian Gate, and Shangqin Gate;
The east part, including Chaoyang Gate, Zhongshan Gate (Small East Gate), East Gate (Changle Gate)
And finally the south part (back), including Jianguo Gate, Heping Gate, Wenchang Gate, and end at the South Gate (Yongning Gate)
1. The whole route is about 14 kilometers, which is a bit difficult for hiking novices and not a piece of cake to the old hands either. It is recommended to hike at a good health state and sleep well the night before.
2. There is almost no cover on the wall. So if you are hiking on a sunny day, please bring sun block to protect your skin and keep cool.
3. As it is a long journey (about 4 hours), bringing enough water is also necessary. You can also buy bottled water at the South Gate, West Gate, North Gate, and East Gate at a price higher than normal.
4. A pair of comfortable walking shoes is also important.
How to reach the South Gate (Yongning Gate)?
You can take Subway Line 2 at 北客站 (Beikezhan, which refers to the North Railway Station) and get off at 永宁门 (Yongningmen). Leaving from the Exit D2 and walk about 140 meters northward, during which you will pass by two traffic lights, you can then turn left and find the ticket office in 50 meters. The whole trip takes about 40 minutes.
The bus stations nearby the gate includes 南门里(Nanmenli) with bus No. 12, No. 193, No. 600, etc. and 南门外 (Nanmenwai) with bus No.6, No. 11, No. 40, No. 208, No.800, etc. You can find the fastest bus from your hotel to the South Gate by common map apps.
If you start from the Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, you can take the Airport Shuttle Bus – Bell Tower Route at Terminal 2, get off at 钟楼饭店 (Zhongloufandian, aka Bell Tower Hotel Xi'an), and then walk southward about 1,500 meters to reach the South Gate. The whole trip will take about 2 hours.
South Gate (Yongning Gate)
The South Gate (also called Yongning Gate, meaning the gate of eternal peace), which is the most time-honored gate among the four main gates (one for each side of the wall).
For almost all Chinese dynasties, the south gate of a royal capital was always the site to greet distinguished guests. Those statues of the ancient dancing ladies, the red palace lanterns and the colorful flags in the South Gate square show that this old city still welcomes visitors from afar.
You can buy an admission ticket at the north end of the square to get across the suspension bridge and the Zhalou, namely the gate tower outside of the city wall. There is also a ticket office right below the Zhenglou gate tower on the other side of the main city wall for visitors who come from the inner city. After mounting the wall and viewing the surrounding scenery, you will be surprised at how well the modern buildings fit in with the old architecture such as the wall and the Bell Tower.
South Gate to Zhuque Gate
On your way westward, you might notice that there are ramparts, which extend out from the main wall. The ramparts were originally built every 120 meters with a sentry building on top to shoot any attackers who climbed the wall. This interval was not decided by accident, but by the fact that half the distance between two ramparts was the effective range of ancient weapons like the bow and arrow and crossbow.
After walking about 1,050 meters, you will reach Zhuque Gate. As one of the four divine creatures in ancient China, Zhuque (rose finch) symbolizes the southern direction and the season of summer. Therefore, Zhuque Gate was the south gate of the original city wall in the Sui and Tang dynasties, and the emperors usually held important ceremonies here. In 645AD, when the renowned Monk Xuan Zang returned to Chang'an (the ancient name for Xian) from his arduous seventeen-year journey to India via the ancient Silk Road, he was warmly greeted at the Zhuque Gate by the chancellor, Fang Xuanling, and other high officials who were instructed to represent Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty. According to historical materials, Japan's first imperial court in Nara was modeled after Chang'an city, and it had a replica of Zhuque Gate as the main entrance, so one can imagine how famous and grand the gate once was.
The original Zhuque Gate was destroyed during a battle at the end of the Tang dynasty. The current one was built in the 1980s very near to the ruins of the original and is of great historical importance. It is now a major gateway to and from the city center.
Zhuque Gate to Wumu Gate
Further to the west of the Zhuque Gate, you can see the Wumu Gate, commonly known as the Small South Gate. It was opened in 1939 to commemorate Mr. Jin Wumu, an early outstanding member of Tongmenhui (Chinese Revolutionary League) who died a martyr during the bourgeois revolution of 1917. If you hike along the wall in the morning, you might see the busy early morning market, an indispensable part of the everyday life of the local people.
Wumu Gate to Hanguang Gate
The next few meters walking to the southwest corner of the city wall, you will pass the Hanguang Gate, which is the best-preserved site of the capital Chang'an during the Sui and Tang dynasties (581 - 907).
Here you can get down to the Hanguang Gate Site Museum to explore an array of relics, and the inner structure and the history of the city wall. You may also take a side visit to China's first thematic museum, focusing on calligraphy, located nearby. Neither of the two museums requires an extra admission fee.
Hanguang Gate to Southwest Corner (Best Part of Round-the-City Park )
As you pass along the city wall, you can see a belt of recreational parks on its outside fringe. This belt is called Round-the-City Park. Of all these parks, the West Park is the largest extending more than 3 kilometers, from the southwest corner of the city wall to the northwest corner. It is open to the public for free and has fitness equipment, leisure facilities, lush trees, wide lawns, and ancient style buildings. Here you could observe the everyday life of the locals doing morning exercises, taking a leisure walk with their pet birds, playing table tennis, singing Shaanxi Opera, or just basking in the sun.
Hanguang Gate to West Gate (Anding Gate)Walking north for about 850 meters from the southwest corner, you will arrive at the West Gate. In the past, it was called Anding Gate meaning that the western frontier is harmonious and peaceful. Set up in 1374-1378 during the Ming Dynasty, the West Gate has all three of its gate towers, Zhalou, Jianlou (arrow tower) and Zhenglou, in a well-preserved state. With square windows (namely arrow holes) in the front and on both sides, the Jianlou tower, located between Zhalou tower and Zhenglou tower, formed another important defense line to guard the city gate. At the east of the Zhenglou tower, you can see a series of Tang-style buildings stretching out ahead of you all the way to the Drum Tower and Bell Tower. There is a viewing station north of the tower for visitors to better appreciate the imposing wall.
West Gate (Anding Gate) to Yuxiang Gate
The next stop of your Xi'an City Wall tour itinerary is Yuxiang Gate, which is about 1260 meters north of the West Gate. In 1926, Xi'an city was besieged by the warlord Liu Zhenghua for more than eight months, during which time many of civilians and soldiers perished in the fighting and from disease and starvation. The city was not saved until General Feng Yuxiang and his National Revolutionary army defeated Liu Zhenghua. In 1928, this gate was opened in memory of General Feng Yuxiang. A series of city sculptures – Zhang Qian's Diplomatic Mission to the Western Regions - stands at the square outside Yuxiang Gate. Inside the gate, is Lianhu Road, one of the busiest east-west traffic arteries.
Yuxiang Gate to Northwest Corner
About 560 meters further north of the Yuxiang Gate is the northwest corner of the City Wall. There, a Sentry Building, which was important to the inner city's safety, stands capturing visitors' attention. Right inside the corner is the only Lama temple in Xian, the Guangren Temple, which was built in 1703 when Emperor Kangxi came to Chang'an (Xi'an) during the Qing dynasty. From then on, it played a significant role in promoting national solidarity. With imposing white pagodas outside, stately buildings, leafy trees and flowers inside, the temple today is a nice quiet area in the bustling city.
After walking eastward for about 700 meters, you will reach the Shangwu Gate (Small North Gate). Inside the gate there is a street called Xiwuyuan, which, as the name implies, was a place in the past to practice martial arts. The Shaanxi military and Kung Fu examinations were held in Xiwuyuan during the Sui and Dang dynasties. It was also the parade ground for military training during the Qing Dynasty.
Shangwu Gate to North Gate (Anyuan Gate)
If you walk east for 1440 meters you can see the North Gate. Also called Anyuan Gate, it implied that the imperial court hoped all its conciliatory approaches towards the minorities on the north frontier would lead to peace. When the 1911 Revolution broke out, the original North Gate towers, where the Qing Army had ammunition stored, were destroyed in the heavy fighting. The current gate was restored in 1983, and it has some cultural relics and works of calligraphy and painting on display in the arrow tower. You can feel proud that half the distance of your city wall hike has been completed.
North Gate (Anyuan Gate) - Shangde Gate - Jiefang Gate - Shangjian Gate - Shangqin Gate
In the next 2300 meters walking eastward to the northeast corner, you will pass the Shangde Gate, Jiefang Gate, Shangjian Gate and Shangqin Gate. These four gates are all busy traffic arteries leading to the Xi'an railway station. The Shangde Gate, Shangjian Gate and Shangqin Gate were all opened after the founding of new China. Together with the Shangwu Gate, they all evince the virtues of Confucian ethics. The original Jiefang Gate was opened during the Republic Period and was torn down in 1952 to expand the railway square. The current rebuilt one joined the entire wall together in 2005.
Shangqin Gate - North east Corner - Chaoyang Gate
Next you will reach the Chaoyang Gate by walking about 780 meters, after rounding the corner. Facing towards the sun, this gate is the first one kissed by the rays of sunshine every day, so that's where it gets its name.
Chaoyang Gate to Zhongshan Gate (Small East Gate)
It is the Zhongshan Gate (Small East Gate) that is 820 meters south of the Chaoyang Gate. The opening of this gate was sponsored by General Feng Yuxiang in honor of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the greatest revolutionary forerunner of modern China. Inside the Zhongshan Gate, there is a thriving antiques market. You can get down from the wall and finish the hiking from this gate if you are interested in exploring or collecting antiques.
You will see the East Gate after walking southward for 700 meters. It has been called Changle Gate (eternal joy) since the Ming dynasty. As Nanjing, the Ming capital, was east of Xian, this gate was named to proclaim the wish that the Ming Emperors desired their government to endure forever at ease. In October of 1643, Li Zicheng led his peasant rebellion force and stormed their way into the inner city from this gate. When he saw the horizontal tablet on the gate, he said to his army 'what a miserable life for people if the emperor wants eternal joy', so they indignantly burnt up the gate. It was rebuilt during the Qing dynasty, and today you can see old defenses like cannons and ballista here.
East Gate (Changle Gate) - Southeast Corner - Jianguo Gate
Walking the next 1020 meters, you will round the southeast corner of the wall and move westward to arrive at the Jianguo Gate, which was opened to mark that great historic event, the founding of PRC.
Jianguo Gate to Heping Gate
While enjoying the city views, you will see the Heping Gate. The name showed the war-weary Chinese people's deep desire for peace in the early years after liberation. Casting your eyes south to the end of the street, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda is visible.
Heping Gate to Wenchang Gate
The next stop, Wenchang Gate, is about 640 meters on your way westward. There is a tower honoring the god of literature, the only construction that has nothing to do with military defense. Legend has it that scholars and students worshipped the god of literature for inspiration and academic help before examinations. The ancients believed that if one's name could be selected by the god of literature, he would pass the three imperial examinations and became the top candidate.
Getting down from the Wenchang Gate and walking inside it for a short while, you can find the Forest of Stone Steles Museum and the site of Guanzhong Shuyuan (the Central Shaanxi Academy – the highest educational institution of Shaanxi Province during the Ming and Qing dynasties). East of the Forest of Stone Steles Museum, there is a 570 meter-long ancient culture street, which is called Shuyuanmen because of the Guanzhong Shuyuan. Those stores sell a lot of calligraphy, paintings, writing brushes, ink stick, paper and ink slabs making this street very culturally active.
If you are still on the wall, you can find that success is in sight. It takes only about 605 meters walking further west to your starting point, the South Gate. At this moment, you will feel a strong sense of accomplishment after finishing this 12-kilometer hike. Congratulations!