Yangling Mausoleum of Han Dynasty (Hanyangling)
The Yangling Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty (Hanyangling) is located at Zhangjiawan Village, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) north of Xian City, Shaanxi Province. It is a joint tomb of Liu Qi, a notable emperor of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24AD), and his empress, Empress Wang. It was built in the year 153 AD and covers an area of 20 square kilometers (4,942 acres). It is a magnificent and abundant cultural relic, comprising the emperor's tomb, empress' tomb, the south and north burial pits, ceremonial site, human sacrifice graveyard and criminals' cemetery. Neatly arranged and centered with the emperor's tomb, it reveals the strict hierarchical social structure. The Outside Pits Exhibition Hall was opened in 2006 and is the first underground museum in China.
|Location Map of Yangling |
Mausoleum of Han Dynasty
Emperor Liu Qi's Tomb
The emperor's tomb is at the center of the mausoleum. The subterranean chamber has passages on its four sides, thus the shape assembles the Chinese character 'ya (亚)'. This type of tomb was considered the best in ancient times. Around the tomb is a tall wall on each side, with four big gates at the middle of each wall. The south gate has been unearthed and opened for tourists. The brick chessboard and the biggest tile have been found at this site.
There are 86 outside pits laid with burial objects. These pits vary in size and the length of these ranges from four meter (13 feet) to over 100 meters (328 feet). In the 1990s, archaeologists excavated ten outside pits and found that they were made to be enclosed space, like wooden cases. From the vestiges, those pits are believed to have original column frames, separating boards, doors and brick floor. Unearthed burial objects include naked pottery figurines, chariots and horses, weapons, articles of everyday use and a large number of pottery animals.
Empress Wang's Tomb
South and North Burial Pits
The south burial pits are located to the southeast of the emperor's tomb while the north burial pits are to the northwest of the emperor's tomb. Both of them have twenty-four small pits of varying sizes, and occupy an area of 96,000 square meters (24 acres) respectively. Fourteen pits in the south burial location were discovered in the 1990s. The excavated articles amount to over 3,000, the number of which surpasses the Museum of Qin Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses. Articles include the painted pottery figures, weapons and utensils, which fully represent the army life in the Han Dynasty.
Compared with the Qin Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses, the pottery figures are one tenth of the actual objects and vary from the warrior to civilian, male to female. Some of them are sculptures of valiant female warriors, gentle and elegant servants, singers or dancers in traditional dress with their long sleeves waving. Naked and armless pottery figures are so vivid and lifelike, claiming to be the 'Oriental Apollo and Venus'. According to the archaeologists, the naked figures had clothes on and wooden arms which had decayed and fallen off over years.
Luojing Stone Site (Ancestral Temple Site)
Outside Pits Exhibition Hall
How to get to Yangling Mausoleum of Han Dynasty
Take bus no. 117, 202, 207, 228, 230, 236, 266, 267, 289, 318, 336, 509, 600, 609, K618, 711, 717, 719, 723, 901, 932, You 10 and get off at City Library (Shi Tu Shu Guan) Station, and then take Tourist Bus No. 4 (You 4) to the terminal Yangling Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty.
Hours of Tourist Bus No. 4 to Yangling Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty: 8:30 - 17:00 (hours of buses back: 09:30 - 18:00)
Frequency of Tourist Bus No. 4: 1 hour
Bus Fare: CNY 2
Take metro line 2 and get off at City Library Station, get out from Exit D and then you can find You 4 bus.
Take Xianyang Bus 5 from Xianyang Railway Station to get there directly.
Bus Fare: CNY4;
Hours: 07:00 to 19:00 (hours of buses back: 06:30 - 18:00);
Frequency: 1 hour.
Xian Bus / Metro Search
Entrance Charge: (including admiring images created by optical illusion)
Mar. - Nov. : 08:30-18:30 (tickets available from 08:30 to 17:30);
China's First Simulating Archaeological Base Launched in Yangling Mausoleum of Han Dynasty
Covering an area of 1,200 square meters (0.3 acres), the base is divided into 8 excavation units, falling into three categories: the outside buried pits for funeral objects, architectural ruins, and tombs. In the excavation simulation, visitors are allowed to use professional archaeological tools to excavate under the guidance of archaeological experts. These tools include hand shovels, brushes, bamboo sticks, probing shovels (also named Luoyang shovels), etc. When a "ruin" or "relic" is discovered by visitors, experts share knowledge about artifacts, including identification, dating and usage on the spot. Visitors can experience the novelty and excitement of personally discovering relics and acquire interesting historical knowledge at the same time.