|Infantry Warriors |
By now, over 7,000 terracotta warriors have been unearthed in the three pits of Terracotta Army. Based on their postures, dressings, and positions in the army, these discovered terracotta warriors are divided into many different types by archaeologists, such as infantry warriors, cavalry warriors, chariot warriors, and kneeling and standing archers. Besides, the unearthed terracotta horses are mainly categorized into saddle horses and chariot horses because of the different applications.
The quantity of Infantry Warriors is the most in the three pits of Terracotta Army, around 7,000 pieces are unearthed. They are distinctive because of their armor, so they are also called the armor-dressed infantry figures. Except the soldier figures, the archaeologists also find a number of general figures in the pits. In order to show the real social hierarchy, the general figures have three classes encompassing the leadership, general figures, junior general figures which are the most discovered by now, and majestic-looking lower general figures. Moreover, the soldier figures can also be segregated into two types: heavy infantry and light infantry. According to their diverse headwear, dressing styles, and shoes, people can recognize their status easily.
116 pieces of pottery cavalrymen and horses have been discovered up to now inside Pit 2
. Each cavalry warrior stands in front of its horse. Both of the warriors and horses are life-sized. With 1.8 – 1.9 meters (5.9 – 6.2 feet) in height, the cavalrymen figures wear the Hu Dress with tight-cuffs coat, long pants, short boots and rounded hat, which is the regular dress for north nomadic people of the time. These vivid cavalry figures and horses are the real reflection of the cavalry image of the Qin Dynasty
(221 BC – 207 BC). Besides, they can provide valuable reference materials for historians to have a better understanding of the development of the cavalry at that time.
|Cavalry Warrior || |
|Chariot Warriors |
It is deduced that about 140 chariots have been discovered inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum
, accompanied by different numbers of chariot warriors. The chariots are divided into command chariots, common chariots, assistant chariots and superior chariots based on their different functions and decorations. The common chariots take the majority, so do their warriors. In general, the pottery figurines on the common chariots contain 3 categories covering charioteer figures, left-hand charioteer figures and right-hand charioteer figures, with the height of 1.82 - 1.89 meters (5.97 - 6.20 feet). Tourists can also see the commander, horseman and warrior on the command chariots, and assistant chariots. Wearing different armor and crowns, four terracotta chariot warriors on superior chariots can be enjoyed as well.
The kneeling archers wear long robes covered with armor and squared shoes. Among all the excavated ones, several found in pit 2 are the best-preserved and attract lots of tourists for their incredible colorful appearance with black hair, pink faces, vermilion headbands, powdery green coat armors, sky-blue and pink leg guards. The painting steps for these warriors are: brush a layover of raw lacquer on their surface, then coat with white pigment, and make the colored drawing eventually. But the colored decorations of a majority of the warriors have come off when unearthed after 2,000 years.
In contrast with the kneeling figures, the standing archers hold the shooting stance, with their feet in the shape of the Chinese character "丁". They are also called light infantry figures, with oblique rounded bun on their heads, knee-length clothes coat the bodies. These standing archery warriors vividly depict the real scene of long-range shooting during the ancient war.
|Kneeling Archery Warrior || |
|Standing Archery Warrior |
In addition to the terracotta warriors, other kinds of terracotta figures such as Civil Official Figures
and Acrobatics Figures
have been excavated from Emperor Qinshihuang's Mausoleum by archaeologists. If interested, you can go to the accessory pits or Exhibition Hall of Historical Relics of Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum not far from the Terracotta Army to have a look.
More than 600 terracotta horses unearthed from the terracotta pits have similar appearance and size with the real war horses of the Qin Dynasty (221 - 207 BC). They have broad chests, robust backs, and rounded horse rumps as well as muscular legs which are representative of the vividness and vigorousness of Qin war horses. These terracotta horses are roughly divided into the two categories of saddle horses and chariot horses; their manufacturing processes are different as well.